Educational process organization
A modern specialist should be a highly educated, well-rounded person. He must creatively master his specialty, be a humanist, brought up on the best traditions of native and world medicine, able to constantly improve his medical skills, always ready to provide medical care, remember the doctor's high mission and his responsibility to patients.
Ophthalmology as a study is included in a large block of surgical disciplines and includes the study of the most important theoretical and clinical bases of ophthalmology.
The program sections of ophthalmology are not duplicated in the learning process, therefore the aim of the teaching is: to familiarize the students with the main sections of the taught discipline, to teach practical skills necessary for a practical doctor of any specialty, and also for basic training in ophthalmology of a general practitioner at the medical-preventive faculty of a medical university.
Topics which are included in the cycle of ophthalmology are two interrelated blocks:
I. The section of fundamental knowledge in the field of ophthalmology, preparing the student for understanding the basics of private ophthalmopathology and mastering the skills of studying the visual analyzer:
• History of development of ophthalmology, its place among medical sciences.
• Anatomy and physiology of the organ of vision.
• Methods for studying the functions of the visual analyzer.
• Methods of examining the eye and its appendages. Acquaintance with specificity of polyclinic attendance of ophthalmic patients.
II. Grounding of special ophthalmopathology, the use of previously mastered eye examination techniques in the diagnosis of a number of the most common ophthalmic diseases. Acquaintance with the questions of emergency ophthalmologic help. Study of the provisions of labor and military expertise.
Diseases of the retina and optic nerve.
Diseases of the oculomotor apparatus.
Diseases of the eyelid, conjunctiva and lacrimal organs.
Diseases of the cornea, sclera and vascular tract.
Diseases of the lens, vitreous body and eye-pit.
Glaucoma. Methods of diagnosis and treatment.
Eye traumatism. Methods of diagnosis and treatment. Military-labor expertise. Changes in the organ of vision in general diseases.
The objectives of ophthalmology are the study of the basics of clinical anatomy and clinical physiology, methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of eye diseases and its auxiliary apparatus, the connection of the eye with other organs and systems.
When studying special ophthalmology, specific attention is paid to the ability to diagnose and provide first aid for trauma and urgent diseases of the eye. Students should know the nosology that doctors often encounter in clinical work.
During the ophthalmology cycle, students are taught the skills of health education, the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, the prevention of eye diseases.
List of practical skills that should be owned by doctors of all specialties.
The student should know
• Anatomy and physiology of the visual analyzer
• Research methods in ophthalmology
• Fundamentals of pharmacotherapy in ophthalmology, including general and topical use of antibiotics, hormone therapy
• Features of the effects of drugs in the elderly
• Main provisions of etiology, pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the most common forms of ophthalmologic pathology
• Principles of management and rehabilitation of patients with the most common ophthalmologic diseases
• Provisions of labor and military medical examination in the most frequent forms of ophthalmologic pathology
• Basics of organization of eye care
• Eye hygiene and eye injury prevention issues
A student must be able to
Skills that the student should know, evaluate and take part in under the supervision and direction of the teacher:
• Side lighting method: simple and combined.
• Determination of the sensitivity of the cornea.
• The method of tangent screen perimetry.
• Subjective way of determining of the refraction.
• Investigation of IOP by Maklakov tonometer.
• Investigation of color perception using Rubkin's tables.
• The method of fixing a small child to examine the eyes.
• Checking the patency of lacrimal ducts and the lacrimal nasal canal.
Skills that the student must be able to perform independently:
• Method of instillation of drops and ointment in the conjunctival cavity.
• Study of eyelid and globe conjunctiva.
• Write out bifocals to the patient.
• Carry out a differential diagnosis between conjunctivitis and iridocyclitis.
• Investigation of the presence or absence of binocular vision.
• Investigation of twilight vision with the help of the Kravkov-Purkinje test.
• Examination of the conjunctiva of the eyelids and transitional folds.
• Investigating the lacrimal sac for the presence of the contents.
• Method of investigation of the field of vision by the control method and on the perimeter.
• Investigation of visual acuity using Sivtsev-Golovin tables, near and projection of light in a patient with cataract.
• Apply a binocular bandage.
• Investigate IOP with palpation.
• Research methodology in transmitted light.
• Indicate differences in pericorneal and conjunctival hyperemia.
• Carry out a differential diagnosis between the acute attack of glaucoma and iridocyclitis.
Preparation and registration of the educational case history (it is recommended to perform the case history after studying the topic "Lens pathology and pathology of the vascular tract of the eye");
Solution of situational problems;
Receiving and entering into the medical history results and instrumental studies using a personal computer.
Control of students' knowledge is carried out by questioning, interviewing, performing written control tasks and testing. The current certification is carried out in the form of pass for a course.
The amount of study time for the discipline "Ophthalmology" is 86 hours, of which 55 hours of classroom hours (10 hours of lectures, 45 hours of practical classes).
In the educational process, the Department of Ophthalmology uses traditional forms and methods of teaching students: lectures, practical classes, as well as elements of self-directed work. Learning sessions are conducted using traditional and modern teaching and information resources (computer presentations of lectures and practical classes), computer class resources and the Internet.
Skills building sessions are conducted on the basis of eye departments. A prerequisite for the organization of practical classes is to familiarize students with the requirements of the sanitary and anti-epidemic regime, the rules of internal labor regulations, safety techniques.
In the methodology of conducting classes, students work under the guidance of a teacher in diagnostic rooms, dressing and operating rooms. Independent work of students is organized during out-of-class work.
List of taught disciplines: